Wednesday, 20 June 2018

Book Reviews


The Girl Who Rode The Wind    By Stacy Gregg.


Do you like horses? Do you like adventure?
Then this book was made for you! The Girl Who Rode The Wind
is a fiction novel that is adventurous and teaches us to
not hang onto the past forever. The genre of this book is
friendship, forgiveness, family and loss.


This novel is set in Siena(Italy) in 2014. The start
of the story is set in Ozone Park, New York. This book
is about friendship because a girl helps her nonna fix a
friend problem and heal the family confusion that happened.


Lola is the main character in this book. She is very
independent and has lots of determination.
Lola really wishes to be a jockey but her father thinks
she should work hard at school and become a dentist or a doctor.
Nonna is Lola’s grandmother. She shares the same love of horses
with Lola and is very independent and stubborn.


Lola Campione really wants to be a jockey.
When her Nonna takes her on a trip to Siena,
Lola’s dreams come true. But Lola’s Nonna tells Lola about
some family confusions that happened. Can Lola try to fix
her Nonna’s problems, and win a horse race at the same time?


This was a really good book to read because of the descriptive
language and the layout. Stacy Gregg did the layout so that one
part was the present, and the next chapter was the past.
The book was written in a  way that sucked me in and made
me feel like I was there.

I would recommend this book to girls that love horses, or adventure.
Girls 9+ would really enjoy this book because it is a book written for
older girls, and not really understandable for younger girls.

Tuesday, 19 June 2018

Measurement Scavenger Hunt

Gravity Space Work

SMRF and READ this text. Then complete the following responses to text.


  • Highlight the main ideas. Summarize these main ideas  in one or two paragraphs.
Gravity is a force that attracts all objects toward each other. Gravity decreases as
distance between the objects increases. There is gravity in space.
Any two masses are attracted towards each other by gravity.
This force of gravity causes the Moon to change direction to make it orbit around the Earth.
Gravity doesn’t disappear just because you are above the atmosphere.
Even if an object is high above the Earth’s atmosphere, there will still be a strong force
of gravity pulling it towards the center of the Earth. Sideways speed keeps satellites in orbit.
If the satellite is given speed in any direction horizontal to the surface of the Earth,
it will travel further before it hits the Earth. If it is given enough speed, as it curves towards the Earth,
it will miss the Earth altogether. Astronauts appear to be weightless in space because there is
still the same amount of gravity acting, but there is no floor pushing upwards on the astronaut.


When does gravity decrease?
Gravity decreases when the space between the objects increases.
  • When does the force of gravity become noticeable?
The force of gravity is noticeable when one or both of the objects has a LOT of mass.
  • Gravity disappears when you are above the atmosphere. True or False?
False, because every object has a gravitational pull but it depends on how
strong the pull is according to the size and mass of the object.


  • According to the text, how long does it take the International Space Station (ISS)
  • to orbit Earth? It takes 90 minutes to orbit earth.


  • Who first stated that all objects are attracted towards each other by gravity?
Isaac Newton first stated that all objects are attracted towards each other by gravity.


  • Find six words in the text that have a suffix.
Attracted          noticeable      kilometres       weightless    higher       fixed


Gravity

Gravity is a force that attracts all objects towards each other. People are attracted towards

the Earth and the Earth towards people, the Moon and the Earth are attracted towards each

other, and the Sun and the Earth are attracted towards each other. All of these attractions

are caused by gravity. Gravitational attraction is greater for more massive objects. Gravity

decreases as distance between the objects increases.

Gravity attracts all things towards each other

Every object in the Universe is being attracted towards every other object by the force of gravity.
This means that there is nowhere you can go in the Universe where gravity is not acting.
Examples of gravity in action:
  • Gravity holds the atmosphere in place around the Earth.
  • Gravity keeps people on the Earth’s surface.
  • Gravity keeps the International Space Station in orbit around the Earth.
  • Gravity keeps the Moon orbiting around the Earth.
  • Gravity keeps the Earth orbiting around the Sun.
Isaac Newton was the first to come up with the idea that all objects are attracted towards
each other by gravity. Even people are attracted towards each other by gravity,
but this force is so small that it is not noticeable. Gravity only becomes noticeable if one
(or both) of the objects has a lot of mass, such as the Earth.
There is gravity in space


Earth-Moon system and gravity
Any two masses are attracted towards each other by gravity. This force of gravity causes the
Moon to change direction to make it orbit around the Earth.


Gravity doesn’t disappear just because you are above the atmosphere. Even if an object is
high above the Earth’s atmosphere, there will still be a strong force of gravity pulling it towards
the center of the Earth. At an altitude of 30 km, you would be above 99% of the Earth’s atmosphere.
At 100 km, you would officially be in space, yet the weight force of gravity would still be nearly the
same. You and the Earth would still be pulled together.


Isaac Newton worked out that, if the distance from the center of the Earth doubles, gravity
becomes a quarter as much as it was on the surface. A satellite with a mass of 1000 kg has
a weight force of 9800 N at the Earth’s surface. The radius of the Earth is about 6366 km, so
at 6366 km above the Earth’s surface, the distance from the center of the Earth will have doubled.
The weight force pulling it towards the center of the Earth will now only be a quarter as much but will
still be 2450 N.


So why doesn’t a 1000 kg satellite just fall back to Earth?


Sideways speed keeps satellites in orbit.

As a satellite moves around the Earth in a circular orbit, the direction of the force of gravity
is always towards the centre of the Earth.
At an altitude of 100 km, you would be so high that you would see black sky and stars if you looked
upwards. If you took a satellite to this height and released it, it would still fall towards the Earth because
the force of gravity is nearly the same as it is at the Earth’s surface.


However, if the satellite is given speed in any direction horizontal to the surface of the Earth, it will travel
further before it hits the Earth. If it is given enough speed, it will travel so far that, as it curves towards
the Earth, it will miss the Earth altogether. At just the right speed, it will move around the Earth in a
circular motion. This type of motion and the path that a satellite moves in is called an orbit.


Close to the Earth at an altitude of 100 km, a satellite needs to be moving at 8 kilometres per
second (28 000 km/h) to stay in orbit. At higher altitudes, satellites do not need to be travelling as fast.
Television communication satellites are at a higher altitude of 36 000 km and only need to travel at 3
km/s (11,000 km/h).


The Moon is 360,000 km from the Earth and only needs to be travelling at 1 km/s to stay in orbit
around the Earth.


If there is gravity in space, why do astronauts appear weightless?
Astronauts appear to be weightless for the same reason that a person on a trampoline feels
weightless when in the air. There is still the same amount of gravity acting, but there is no floor
pushing upwards on the astronaut, so the weight force cannot be felt.


If a person was in an elevator and the cables broke and the brakes failed (we are assured this
cannot happen), the person and the elevator would fall towards the Earth at the same rate.
The floor would not be holding the person upwards, so the person could enjoy the sensation
of weightlessness (for a brief while).


This is the same for astronauts high above the atmosphere on the International Space Station
(ISS) at an altitude of about 400 km. Gravity is still strong, but the astronaut and the ISS fall
towards the ground at the same rate. They are also both travelling horizontally at 28,000 km/h.
As they fall towards the ground, they travel so fast horizontally that they miss the Earth altogether
and orbit the Earth once every 90 minutes.

Nature of science

Science ideas change over time. Isaac Newton’s gravity-based world view has since been
superseded by Albert Einstein’s ideas that all masses distort space and time. This highlights the
fact that science is not a fixed body of knowledge. Although Einstein’s theory is widely accepted,
Newton’s law of universal gravitation is still used for practical situations such as satellite motion.





Tuesday, 12 June 2018

Wednesday, 6 June 2018

Space Inquiry Milky Way Galaxy

Over the last couple of weeks my class have been working on a space inquiry. We had to come up with a rich question around a topic of space we were interested in. Here is my work. 

Thursday, 31 May 2018

Tuesday, 15 May 2018